Professor Karayiannis introduced how the UK is committed to achieving net zero emissions by 2050, while also setting a target of at least 68% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.

The need to reduce emissions by ~8% each year between 2020 and 2030 was also clearly indicated in the 2019 UN Emissions Report. This requires substantive improvements in system efficiency and further technological innovation to reduce fossil-fuel reliance and increase the energy share generated from renewable sources. Nuclear energy is certainly part of the required solution, mix along with energy from waste, solar, geothermal and wind. Heat transfer in current nuclear fission and in the future fusion energy plants constitutes a major challenge and in certain cases a limiting factor.

To assist with message and to inform us of the current and future work in the above areas, Tassos introduced two additional speakers:

Michael J Bluck - The role of nuclear power in meeting UK net-zero targets: cost, time and fear.

Dr Bluck is the Director of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering at Imperial College London and the Director of the Rolls Royce Nuclear University Technology Centre supporting the nuclear propulsion systems in the UK submarine fleet. His own research areas include nuclear thermal hydraulics in fission and fusion reactors.

Dr Kamenicky together with E. Yildirim, J. Taylor & V. Lee - A new heat flux frontier, who has the walls for it?

Dr Kamenicky has a PhD in quenching from the University of Strathclyde. He has worked for EUROFusion on the design of the tokamak EU DEMO and participated in commissioning the High Heat Flux facility HELCZA under F4E. He is now the Plasma-Facing Components Cooling Systems Section Leader at Tokamak Energy. His work focuses on research and development of cooling technologies for tokamaks' walls in proximity to plasma.

A special thank you to Christos Markides, and his team, for providing an excellent venue and facilities at Imperial College London.